Heat pumps lexicon

Questions and Answers from A to Z lexicon on the topic of heat pumps... Test your knowledge and have fun!

ABSORBER

The absorber is a building element that absorbs the ambient heat and heat radiation then passes it to a heat transfer carrier.

AIR HEAT PUMP

The air source heat pump takes the heat from the ambient air (inside or outside the home) and returns it to the heating water for heating or domestic hot water purposes.

ANNUAL ENERGY COSTS

Annual heating costs are defined as the sum of all incurred expenses during the year of a heating system. This includes the costs of electricity, maintenance, other additional costs and the share of the investment costs for maintenance, debt and depreciation.

BRINE

The brine fluid is a mixture of water and antifreeze. This mixture is used as the heat transfer medium to the heat pump systems.

BUFFER STORAGE

A buffer is used for storing the heating system’s water. Buffers improve the efficiency, bridge electrical shut-off periods for heat pumps and for temporary storage of sudden heat. Buffers can be operated with or without the heating system’s pre-pressure.

CIRCULATION PUMP

The circulation pump is an electrically driven pump for transporting the heating water or brine fluid. Prerequisite for the use of optimized pumps is a hydraulic balance.

COMPRESSOR

The compressor is an essential part of a heat pump or a machine for the compression of gases. For heat pumps, the working medium is compressed for the purpose of increasing the temperature.

COP (Coefficient of Performance)

The coefficient of performance or COP (sometimes CP) of a heat pump is the ratio of the heating performance or cooling provided over the electrical energy consumed. The COP was created to compare heat pump systems according to their energy efficiency. A higher value implies a higher (better) efficiency between the pump's consumption of energy and its output.

CO2

CO2 is the chemical symbol for carbon dioxide.

CO2 PROBE

The probe withdraws heat from the ground through its independent circulation.

CO2 HEAT EXCHANGER

Transfers the CO2 working medium’s energy to the working fluid.

CONTINUOUS MODULATION

The stepless modulation heat pump technology adapts to the building’s thermal output demand range, without turning the heating on or off. As opposed to the single or two step modulation operation, the stepless modulation technology has a higher efficiency, lower pollutant emissions and less wearing out of components

D-A-CH - SEAL OF APPROVAL

The heat pump seal of approval has been in force since May 3, 1999 in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. It is a joint D-A-CH project, a coalition between the Funding Association Organizations for heat pumps in Switzerland - Fördergemeinschaft Wärmepumpen Schweiz (Swiss Heat Pump Funding Association- FWS), In Germany - Initiativkreis Wärmepumpe (Initiative Circle for Heat Pumps - IWP) and in Austria the Leistungsgemeinschaft Wärmepumpen Österreich (Austrian Heat Pump Performance Association – LGW). Our heat pumps have the DACH seal of approval, unless referring to object related systems and customized products.

DIRECT EXPANSION

The direct evaporation is a method of absorbing heat energy from the environment, which can be used for heating and hot water preparation. A seething low temperature point refrigerant circulates in the absorber vaporizes by heat absorption. After the heat has been withdrawn, the working fluid returns to liquid form.

DSI® - ELECTRONIC REGULATED WORKING FLUID

The DSI technology (electronically controlled expansion valve) is used for optimum regulation of the refrigerant cycle.

EFFICIENCY

Efficiency is characterized by the performed heating efficiency of a heat pump.

EVAPORATOR

The evaporator is the heat exchanger of a heat pump. Here the brine solution, air, ground or groundwater withdraws the heat by evaporation of the working fluid.

FRESH WATER TECHNOLOGY

Fresh water technology refers to a hygienic way of heating water. In contrast to water storage tanks, the heating water process does not occur from stored water, rather by the flow of fresh water. In this manner, only the needed amount of water is heated in the heat exchanger; a buffer storage is generally required.

GROUND COLLECTOR

High quality refrigeration copper tubing with a PE coating through which the working fluid flows. .

GEOTHERMAL

Geothermal is often associated with the use of heat pumps for heating purposes. The heat stored energy is withdrawn from the ground by means of PE coated copper tubing. The geothermal energy is made up of several factors, some of which are solar radiation, and precipitation, etc.

GROUND PROBE

The probe withdraws free stored energy from the ground.

GROUND WATER PUMP

Pumps the groundwater from the withdrawing water well to the heat pump cycle.

HEAT EXCHANGER

A heat exchanger is a device, that transfers heat of a medium to a different or to the same medium, without mixing the medium. Heat exchangers can be found in buffer water tanks as winding formed tubes or bundled tubes transferring the heat of the heating water to the domestic water.

HEAT OUTPUT

Heat output is delivered useable heat by a heat source at a specified time (eg per hour). It is measured in kW (kiloWatt). The heat output must meet at least the building’s heating load.

HEATING COSTS

Belonging to this group are the heating installation costs, the usual operating costs, capital costs and the operating costs.

HEAT PUMP

The heat pump as a heating unit takes low temperature heat on the inlet side and gives higher temperature heat on the outlet heating side again. A working fluid evaporates as a result of the taken up ambient heat (air, ground, water). The slightly heated gaseous working fluid is condensed by a compressor, where the temperature rises to a higher level. The high temperature working fluid transfers the heat to the heating water and is cooled. After, the liquid working fluid flows back into the evaporator and the cycle begins again.

HEAT PUMP SYSTEM

A heat pump system consists of a heat pump unit and the heat source unit (eg, ground collectors, geothermal probes, etc.), as well as a regulating control system, the heating circulation pump, a buffer and a domestic hot water buffer storage.

OPERATING COSTS

Operating costs are the costs, e.g. for central heating, resulting in addition to other expenditures and capital costs. They are also referred to as binding operating costs. The operating costs include the expenses for the operation, monitoring, maintenance and any necessary insurance.

OUTLET TEMPERATURE

The outlet temperature refers to the temperature of the flowing heating water out to the radiator. The temperature is between 25 and 55 °C with outdoor temperature sensor controlled heating and depending on the outside temperature. Systems with only surface heating (under floor heating, wall heaters) can range from 25 to 40 °C. For heating systems without mixing valves, the outlet temperature is equal to the buffer water temperature.

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS

In order to compare performance data, you must have the same operating conditions. According to EN 255. The following abbreviations are defined:
• "W" for water
• "B" for Brine
• "A" for Air
COP for the ideal comparison process (the Carnot cycle)
Coefficient of Performance (Carnot) = T / (T-T0)
T: temperature of the environment is delivered to the heat, in K
T0: ambient temperature, the heat is removed, in K

REFRIGERANT

A low boiling temperature point substance, that is vaporized in a cycle process by heat absorption and returns to liquid form by heat emission.

SEASONAL PERFORMANCE FACTOR (SPF)

The amount of the annual COP is an important criterion for assessing the efficiency of heat pumps. It indicates the ratio of the annual heat amount emitted for space and water heating in kWh and the required electrical drive energy in kWh.

SURFACE HEATING

Surface heating are pipes in the floor (under floor heating), in the wall (wall heating) or in the ceiling (ceiling heating systems), that are filled and installed with heating water. Larger heating surfaces can benefit by heating with low temperatures of 30-35 °C. This leads to minimum energy consumption, making a positive impact on the cost of heating.

WITHDRAWING WATER WELL

Wells from where groundwater is withdrawn.

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