Heating Sources for Heat Pumps
Ground heat source
Ground source heat pumps use the soil as a heat source. Soil proves to be a good heat accumulator since the soil temperature is relatively constant all year round. The heat is accumulated, thus allowing geothermal probes or ground collectors to use the stored solar energy in the ground. Ideal for probes and collectors since they hardly affect the landscape.
Ground collectors ...
... are a large area coiled tube system of approx. 1.2 meters deep laid parallel to the ground surface. The distance between the individual tube coils is approximately 50 cm.
Ground probes ...
... are mostly used when the plot is too small for ground collectors. Geothermal probes are vertical ground heat exchangers installed at a distance of at least five meters so that they do not interfere with one another.
Water as heat source
Ground water heat pumps use the ground water as a heat source. The installation of this system when compared to the two other sources require the greatest effort. Usually, it will require to build a water supply well and a dry-drain well. The distance between both wells should be at least 10 meters. As a reward for all the effort, you will have the heat pump with the currently best performance and COPs. Or in short: Ground water heat pumps have the highest efficiency.
Air as heat source
Air heat pumps have the lowest installation cost. By this we understand, are systems which withdraw heat from the outside air and use it via an energy carrier for heating. The corresponding quantity of air is guided through a specified fan to an evaporator, which cools it. This variant is particularly suitable for refurbishments or for bivalent systems, when the heat pump runs parallel to another heating system. Modern and truly high quality systems, such as Heliotherm heat pump systems operate safely with temperatures of -20 °C and less can be ensured.